The Effects of Patriarchal System to Indian and Afgan Women in Arundhaty Roy’s The God of Small Things and Khaled Hosseini’s A Thousand Splendid Suns

The Effects of Patriarchal System to Indian and Afgan Women

in Arundhaty Roy’s The God of Small Things and Khaled Hosseini’s A Thousand Splendid Suns


By Nor Laili Fatmawati Fs.




Culture is one of social elements that mostly influence the life of certain society. Culture is made by people to be their guidance in living together with other people in their environment. It also becomes an identity that differentiates one society to the other ones. Usually, culture is created based on its society beliefs, religions, myths, customs, local arts, etc, which are considered as valuable things for the society.

One social aspect that has been influenced by the culture is gender. Gender deals with the social view on the role of man and woman in society. As a matter of fact, man and woman are often placed in the different position in society. It causes both man and woman have different rights and obligations, and results domination of one of them toward the other one.

The inequality between man and woman can be obviously observed in the society in which patriarchal system is applied. Practically speaking, patriarchal system is defined as control by men. This system allows the men to have the power and control toward women. And it causes women constantly must fight for their rights and do struggle to survive.

The life of women under the system of patriarchy has been described by some authors in their literary works. Arundhaty Roy is one of them. Arundhaty Roy whose full name is Suzanna Arundhaty Roy was born on November, 24, 1961. In her childhood, she got education from some informal schools in Ayemenem. Then, when she was 16 years old, she attended the Dehli School of Architecture, and married her friend, Gerard Da Cunha. Four years later, the marriage ended and Roytook a job at the National Institute of Urban Affairs. Roy’s The God of Small Things is her first novel published in 1996. It quickly became a best-seller, and won the prestigious Booker Prize in October, 1997 (Smyrl, at

The God of Small Things is a novel which tells the life of three Indian women who lived under the patriarchal system of Indian society. The three women, Mamachi, Ammu and Rahel represent the role of woman in Indian society. They become the witnesses of how their identities as women have made them suffered and lost lot of their rights as human beings. Through their life,Roy described the social life ofIndia in around the 1960s, including how the patriarchy supported the women oppressions, how this system was born in Indian society, and how it has effected the life of Indian women.

The similar theme is also written by an American author who came from Afgan, Khaled Hosseini. Khaled Hosseini was born in Kabul, Afghanistan, on March 4, 1965. He spent his childhood in his hometown until his father who worked for Afghan Foreign Ministry moved to Parisin 1976. He graduated from Independence High School in San Jose in 1984 and then earned a bachelor’s degree in biology in 1988. In 1993, he earned his M.D. from School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. He lives in Northern California as a Goodwill Envoy for the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (at

Hosseini’s second novel, A Thousand Splendid Suns tells the life of Maryam and Laila who lived in Afgan during  Afghan’s tumultuous thirty-year transition from Soviet occupation to Taliban control and post-Taliban rebuilding. This novel describes how the patriarchal system of Afgan society has resulted the fact that there are a lot of women’s rights were diminished. Therefore, Afgan women lived under the men domination. They were only allowed to do the domestic works, not to study in schools or any other educational institutions, to works outside the houses, or to do the other activities to actualize their own selves.

In this paper, Arundhaty Roy’s The God of Small Things and Khaled Hosseini’s A Thousand Splendid Suns which centered its story on the life of women under the patriarchal system ofIndia and Afgan, will be analyzed by using comparative literary study, especially the American school of comparative literature. This school is chosen here because this paper is going to explore everything behind these two works of literature of different nations. This school is different from the French school for being more flexible and able to advocate the interdisciplinary method. And because this literary approach is going to be applied in studying two novels of the different periods, this study is classified into diachronic comparative literature.

There are two focuses of this paper, first, describing the patriarchal system of India and Afgan, second, explaining the effects of the patriarchal system toward the women of India and Afgan. These two focuses will be explored based on the discussion of the two novels, Arundhaty Roy’s The God of Small Things and Khaled Hosseini’s A Thousand Splendid Suns, and also based on the discussion of some sources outside the novels which related to the two focuses stated before.

By this paper, hopefully the readers can enrich their knowledge about patriarchal system as one cultural phenomenon which influences very much the role of women in society. It is also purposed to give the readers insight about ethnical ideologies, cultures, view points of Indian and Afgan society which established the system of patriarchy and its effects, and then awaken the spirit of feminism in some women.


1. Comparative Literature

There are many definitions of comparative literature. Remark (1990: 12) defined it as a study of literature beyond national boundaries to find out the relationships between literature and other areas of knowledge and beliefs. On the other hand, Bassnett (1993: 20) defined the comparative literature as the study of texts from different cultural contexts and origins to identify their points of convergences and divergences. From these two definitions, it can be concluded that comparative literature is a literary study in which two or more works of different nations or cultures are compared to explore its relationship, convergences and divergences.

There are two major schools of comparative literature, the French and the American school. The first appeared firstly then the second. The most obvious difference between them is that French only allows the comparison between two or more literary works, while American school allows the comparison between literary work and other disciplines, such as knowledge, belief, history, etc. The first focuses on tracing motifs in some literary works, and how the motifs traveled from one culture to another culture, while the second focuses on studying everything behind literary works and other disciplines to know its similarities, differences, relationships.

There are some debates relating to the criteria of works which are possible to be studied in comparative literature. Some figures in comparative literature stated that the works studied in comparative literature should come from different nations and use different languages, but some others stated that using different languages is not necessary as fat as its have historical relationship and represent the different cultures. Related to this problem, Suripan Sadi Hutomo (___), stated that there are various objects can be studied using comparative literature. It includes comparing two works from two nations that use the different languages, comparing two works from two nations that use the same language, comparing one’s work produced in his/ her original nation to his/ her work produced after he/ she moved to another nation and changed its nationality, comparing works that use different local languages of one nation, comparing works of two authors of one nation but written in different languages, and comparing a work of a foreign author who lives in certain nation to local author’s work. So, according to Hutomo’s explanation, the problem of language and nationality cannot be judged as the main criteria in comparative literary study.

Endaswara (2000: 141), explained that related to the time in which the novels studied in comparative literature, comparative literature is classified into two, they are synchronic and diachronic. The synchronic comparative literature is studying on novels of one period or time, while diachronic comparative literature is studying on novels of different periods.

According to this explanation, this study on the effects of patriarchal system to Indian and Afgan women in Arundhaty Roy’s The God of Small Things and Khaled Hosseini’s A Thousand Splendid Suns is included to the American school of comparative literature that focuses on describing the patriarchal system of India and Afgan, and explaining the effects of the patriarchal system toward the women of India and Afgan from both Roy’s The God of Small Things and Hosseini’s A Thousand Splendid Suns. And because these two novels were written in different periods, this study is classified into diachronic comparative literature.

2. Patriarchal System

Patriarchy is practically defined as control by men. It is a system applied in certain societies to determine the roles of men and women in their environments. In patriarchal system, men have the power to control their opposite gender, women. And it caused women constantly must fight for their rights and sometimes should struggle just to survive under the power and domination of men. Lindsey German (Sharabi, 1988: 34), explained that patriarchy is a social organization marked by the supremacy of the father in the clan or family, the legal dependence of wives and children, and the reckoning of descent and inheritance in the male line, and also broadly control of man on woman.

In the same page, Lindsey German also told that patriarchal system justifies man as super-ordinate and woman as subordinate. The responsibility to earn some money for the family was put on man’s back. Women are only regarded as an ordinary housewife. In this case, men will have bigger rights to decide what will happen to their family because they are considered as the one who give more income to their family. Patriarchy is also found in the tradition in which women should take the name of their husbands and children always carrying that father’s last name. In fact, there are lot of women should keep their maiden names and hyphenate it with their married name so they can retain their own identity with reference of Mr. and Mrs.

Originally, it was the feminists who called attention to this patriarchal system. Most of them reject predominantly biological explanations of patriarchy and contend that social and cultural conditioning is primarily responsible for establishing male and female gender roles. According to Sharabi (1988:58), patriarchy is the result of sociological construction passed down from generation to generation. The existence of this patriarchal system is supported by some factors, including the major ideology of certain society that is sourced from the major religion or belief followed by the most members of society. According to Peter and Wolper (1995:16), it will be very difficult to remove the system of patriarchy in certain societies because usually it is rooted from its ideologies and beliefs. Some religions often follow it faithfully by its every word which puts the men in charge and women should be submissive to men. With that in mind and those beliefs instilled in cultures, women do not stand a chance at gaining strength in their gender and its potential in their life.

There are many effects resulted by the patriarchal system. According to Peter and Wolper (1995:18), the most occurrence resulted by patriarchy is domestic violence. Domestic violence is “the inflicting of physical injury by one family or household member on another; also: a repeated or habitual pattern of such behavior” (Peter and Wolper, 1995:16). It can appear in various forms, including physical violence, psychological violence, economical violence, sexual violence and so on.

As women were oppressed by this system, their consciousness to fight for their rights and break the system of patriarchy gradually arises. This awakening usually linked by the women movement called feminism. This movement is started by individual consciousness to break the domination of men in the smallest domain, family, and continuous to the larger domains. It can be in form of individual rebellions toward domestic rules, exchanging roles between men and women, breaking cultural laws that discriminate the women, group movement to fight for women’s rights, and so on.


1. Patriarchal System of India and Its Effects toward Indian Women in Arundhaty Roy’s The God of Small Things

In Arundhaty Roy’s The God of Small Things, there are three women of three generations who each of them was born and raised under different circumstances. Starting from the oldest generation, Mamachi, then the generation of Ammu, and the youngest generation is Rahel. These three woman characters have become the eye witnesses of how the patriarchal system ofIndia has made their life under the oppression and domination of men who lived around them.

Before talking about how the patriarchal system has effected the life of these three women, it is better to provide firstly the description of Indian society in which the patriarchal system has been an un-separated part of its culture. As it has been explained before, there are many factors which directly and indirectly have supported the existence of this system, the most are ideologies, beliefs and traditions. As considered as a religious country,India’s culture has been colored mostly by religious laws, especially Hinduism that becomes the major religion in this country. The way of Hinduism poses or puts the women into certain roles in society unfortunately has invited some misinterpretations that then supports the birth of the patriarchal system.

Susan Wadley and Doranne Jacobson (1995 at conclude that according to Hinduism teaching, there are dual view on women, they are first, woman is benevolent and bestower, second, woman is aggressive, malevolent and destroyer. From this view, woman holds two personalities, they are woman as energy/ power and woman as nature. The woman as energy is called sakti. It means that woman has energy to create life because there will be no life without the present of woman existence. While the woman as nature is called praktri. It is the metaphor of woman who is seen as a field of earth in which a man puts his seed. And the union of the field and the seed is the beginning of life. So, woman as the nature makes the woman as the counterpart of the male (perusa). For bringing this nature, woman tends to be wild and uncultured. That is why woman can be aggressive, malevolent and destroyer.

From these two personalities, Hindu has made the rule for woman as how to behave properly, it is called Dharmasastras. This rule is written in form of Hindu mythology and folklore. One of the teachings says that the ideal Hindu woman is the one who allows her husband to control her and her power. It makes women’s status seems to be lower then men. Men dominate the activities outside the home, while women are only in charge of everything inside the home.

Mamachi’s family, although their religion is Christian Syria, since they live inAyamenem,India, they cannot avoid their life from being influenced by Hinduism. It means that the Hindu’s rules that have been mixed with the culture ofIndiahave been the society’s law that arranges all elements of the society’s life, including the life of Mamachi’s family as the member of the society. So, the way Indian culture puts women into certain roles has been reflected in Mamachi’s family. As women, Mamachi, Ammu and Rahel should pass the life under the patriarchal system that has made them as “the second” in their family.

There are different ways of Mamachi, Ammu and Rahel in putting their selves into the system of patriarchy. Started from Mamachi, in the novel, this woman is told has got married in puberty age with seventeen –year-old man who has nearly controlled every step of hers. In the beginning years of their marriage, when Mamachi had been a promising violinist player, she should leave her career because Papachi asked her to leave it.

It was during those few months they spent inViennathat Mammachi took her first lessons on the violin. The lessons were abruptly discontinued when Mammachi’s teacher Launsky-Tieffenthal made the mistake of telling Pappachi that his wife was exceptionally talented and in his opinion, potentially concert class (Roy: 50).

The paragraph above explained that Mamachi’s life has been controlled by Papachi since their marriage. This case is not the only one that shows us the domination of man as a husband on a woman as his wife. The other case is the fact that there were some domestic violence occurred in Mamachi’s family. Papachi, in his life time often beat Mamachi with a brass flower vase. In addition, Papachi insulted Mamachi as she was never allowed to sit in hisPlymouth, until after his death.

The other man who has dominated Mamachi’s life is Chaco, her privileged and Oxfordeducated son. When he returned home after his divorce from Margaret, he takes over Mamachi’s pickle factory and referring to the factory as “… my factory, my pineapples, my pickles” (Roy: 57) without regarding Mamachi and Ammu who have started and developed the factory from long time ago before Chaco returned home.

Facing these facts, Mamachi has done nothing except accepting what have done on her. Whatever her husband has done, as a virtuous woman, she should accept it because it is the obligation of being woman as the culture has ruled her society.

Ammu, the woman in the second generation in the novel is the one who mostly restricted by situation. Because her parents hold the traditional rules ofIndia, she lives as the second. As the matter of fact, her parents give more affection to his brother for being a man than her as a woman. Moreover, after being single mother of two children, her position in society is worse. She has no other choice but living in her parents’ house and wait for marriage proposal.

When the marriage proposal came, Ammu leaves Ayemenem and lives inCalcuttawith his second husband. But, unfortunately, his second husband is unemployed and one day he sold Ammu to his manager. This case caused Ammu do the second divorce that makes her position worse in society. It is because the society believe that a good woman should live with her husband and accept whatever done by her husband. So, “divorced woman” for them is considered as very bad title that symbolizes the rebellion of un-virtuous woman.

From the character of Ammu, we can learn that Ammu is the woman who tries to rebel the Hindu values and patriarchy system in Indian society. Unlike her mother, she cannot accept the bad attitudes and actions of her husband and prefer the divorce than keeping her marriage. Ammu is also the example of a member of society who breaks the communal laws ofIndia.

Rahel, Ammu’s daughter is the woman who has no place in both her family and society. Living in her grandparent’s house, she does not enable to live like normal child. She lives as the witness of injustice on her mother’s life. As Rahel is growing up unwanted, she never experiences the real Hindu tradition because no one regards her present, so that, Rahel becomes a free woman who unlike her mother, she is not restricted by the mental restriction of the Hindu tradition. This is why, at her return to Ayemenem, she answer an old man who asked about her marital status by “We’re divorced” (Roy: 130), without worrying what will the old man assume about her answer.

From the explanation of these three woman characters’ life, we can see that the patriarchal system ofIndiahas come with negative effects for women. It causes some oppressions and violence in their life, including the physical, psychological, economical and sexual violence. The following paragraph is one evidence of the violence got by Mamachi from his husband.

Though Mammachi had conical corneas and was already practically blind, Pappachi would not help her with the pickle-making because he did not consider pickle-making a suitable job for a highranking ex-Government official. … Every night he beat her with a brass flower vase. The beatings weren’t new. What was new was only the frequency with which they took place. One night Pappachi broke the bow of Mammachi’s violin and threw it in the river (Roy: 23).

This quotation tells how Papachi has did the violence toward his wife by never helping her in pickle-making as the home industry that has supported very much their family’s finance. On the contrary, Papachi has done the physical violence by frequently, even every night, beating her wife with brass flower vase. And by breaking Mamachi’s violin and throwing it, Papachi has did the psychological violence as stated in the explanation before, Papachi did not allow Mamachi to actualize her self by majoring her talent in playing violin, where as, self actualization is a psychological need that actually should be the right of all people, including men and women.

For the economical violence, it can be seen when Chako took over the pickle factory without regarding Ammu who has given the more contribution than his. He also disregarded Mamachi who has founded and developed it before he returned home.

Almost immediately, the financial slide began, but was artificially buoyed by extravagant bank loans that Chacko raised by mortgaging the family’s rice fields around the Ayemenem House. Though Ammu did as much work in the factory as Chacko, whenever he was dealing with food inspectors or sanitary engineers, he always referred to it as my Factory, my pineapples, my pickles. Legally this was the case, because Ammu, as a daughter, had no claim to the property (Roy: 28).

The last sentence in the paragraph above has clearly showed that in the patriarchal system has been injustice for women. Ammu, although she has do hard work to develop the factory, because she was only “a daughter”, she had no claim to the property.

Beside facing the economic violence, Ammu is also the character who has faced the sexual violence. It can be seen when she was sold by her second husband to his meneger in order to get money to heal his own self from alcoholic diseases.

The weeping stopped. Puzzled brown eyes looked into lurid, red-veined, green ones. Over coffee Mr. Hollick proposed that Baba go away for a while. For a holiday. To a clinic perhaps, for treatment. For as long as it took him to get better. And for the period of time that he was away, Mr. Hollick suggested that Ammu be sent to his bungalow to be “looked after.” (Roy: 20).

The words “to be looked after” in the paragraph above is the terms used by the manager of Ammu’s second husband who at that time offered Ammu’s second husband to sell his wife to get some moneys to heal his alcoholic diseases. And the agreement of Ammu’s second husband for this order is an evidence of sexual violence in which Ammu has been exploited by her own husband for being forced to give the sexual service to other people under his own husband’s agreement in order to give him some financial profits.

2. Patriarchal System of Afgan and Its Effects toward Women in Khaled Hosseini’s A Thousand Splendid Suns

BesideIndia, Afgan is also considered as a religious country. This country is dominated by Moslems as Islam has been its major religion. Therefore, like what happened inIndia, Afgan’s culture is unavoidably influenced very much by Islamic teaching. Almost all laws in Afgan are arranged based on its society’s interpretation of their religion.

One of cultural elements of Afgan that has been influenced by moslems’s beliefs is gender discourse. The society of Afgan has put men and women in certain positions and roles according to their understanding of their religious laws. It means that actually, what they acted or assumed or thought in the name of their religious laws, is not always what their religion means. Unfortunately, this paper is not going to discuss about how the Afgan society interpret their religious teachings related to the positions of men and women in Islam, but this paper is only going to explore how their interpretation of their religion has effected the positions or roles of men and women in Afgan.

In Islam, all creatures are created equally for one reason, it is to worship their God. The best creature is only who has the best quality of faith. So, it can be the men or women. Both of these two sexes have the same rights and opportunities to be the best. The only difference between men and women is only their physical appearances. It is told that men are stronger then women. This difference actually is purposed to make the men and women take care, honor, help, cooperate and complete each other, not to dominate or discriminate each other.

Observing the life of Afgan society by focusing to the central character Maryam, unfortunately, seemingly the religion’s explanation about the difference between men and women has invited some misinterpretations. It causes the men who were told as the stronger creatures felt that they have the more rights than the women. They also felt that they should control the women as their properties. Automatically, this view has supported the growth the patriarchal system in Afgan’s society.

The patriarchal system in Afgan has come with some sufferings for Afgan women. They often get some violence from their husbands or other men whose treatments however have been legalized by this system. The violence appears in various forms, including the physical violence, psychological violence, and economical violence.

For the physical violence, this case has been told in many places in A Thousand Splendid Suns, one of them is quoted in the following paragraph:

It wasn’t easy tolerating him talking this way to her, to bear his scorn, his ridicule, his insults, his walking past her like she was nothing but a house cat. But after four years of marriage, Mariam saw clearly how much a woman could tolerate when she was afraid And Mariamwas afraid She lived in fear of his  shifting moods, his volatile temperament, his insistence on steering even mundane exchanges down a confrontational path that, on occasion, he would resolve with punches, slaps, kicks, and sometimes try to make amends for with polluted apologies and sometimes not (Hosseini: 56).

. . . .

Then she heard the front door opening, and Rasheed was back in the living room.

“Get up,” he said. “Come here. Get up.”

He snatched her hand, opened it, and dropped a handful of pebbles into it.

“Put these in your mouth.” “What?”

“Put. These. In your mouth.”

“Stop it, Rasheed, I’m-”

His powerful hands clasped her jaw. He shoved two fingers into her mouth and pried it open, then forced the cold, hard pebbles into it. Mariam struggled against him, mumbling, but he kept pushing the pebbles in, his upper lip curled in a sneer.

“Now chew,” he said (Hosseini: 59).

The big number of physical violence in this novel has proven that patriarchal system has big potencies to be the main cause of domestic violence in society. As being the first, the leader, or the owner of women, men, or husbands are allowed to do everything toward their women.

In a row with the physical violence, the psychological violence usually comes together. For being physically suffered, usually the women also felt of being psychologically depressed. The psychological violence is also resulted by verbal abuses, constant criticism, insults and so on. This violence can make the victims lost their confidence, hopeless, feeling guilty and face other psychological problems.

The other violence form resulted by the patriarchal system is economic violence. It can be in form of the control of men toward women’s finance, taking women’s money without permission, limiting women’s works outside the house, and also treating women as commodities that can be exploited to get material profits. This economic violence makes the women cannot freely have the right of belonging, and in many times, it causes them living in poverty because beside they are not allowed to work, they also do not receive enough basic necessities of life from their husbands.

We get mothers like you all the time-all the time-mothers who come here who can’t feed their children because the Taliban won’t let them go out and make a living. So you don’t blame yourself. No one here blames you. I understand.” He leaned forward.”Hamshira I understand.”


“As for this place,” Zaman sighed, motioning with his hand, “you can see that it’s in dire state. We’re always underfunded, always scrambling, improvising. We get little or no support from the Taliban. But we manage. Like you, we do what we have to do… (Hosseini: 164).

This quotation has described clearly the poor condition of Afgan women, in which they should live under the chronic poverty because they are not allowed to work outside their houses whereas their husbands cannot earn enough money for their daily needs.

There is one part in the novel that obviously describes the whole condition of patriarchal system in Afgan. This part is quoted as follows:

Attention women:

You will stay inside your homes at all times. It is not proper for women to wander aimlessly about the streets. If you go outside, you must be accompanied by a mahram, a male relative. If you are caught alone on the street, you will be beaten and sent home.

You will not, under any circumstance, show your face. You will cover with burqa when outside. If you do not, you will be severely beaten.

Cosmetics are forbidden.

Jewelry is forbidden.

You will not wear charming clothes.

You will not speak unless spoken to.

You will not make eye contact with men.

You will not laugh in public. If you do, you will be beaten.

You will not paint your nails. If you do, you will lose a finger.

Girls are forbidden from attending school All schools for girls will be closed immediately.

Women are forbidden from working.

If you are found guilty of adultery, you will be stoned to death

Listen. Listen well. (Hosseini: 144).

These rules which are made by Taliban for Afgan women have given the description about how hard the Afgen women’s life during the Taliban era. There are many rights of women disobeyed. Afgan women have been put in very contradicted position from men’s. They almost have nothing of their own selves because they are not theirs, but their husbands’ or men’s properties.

3. The Comparison between the Patriarchal System of India and The  Patriarchal System of Afgan in Arundhaty Roy’s The God of Small Things and Khaled Hosseini’s A Thousand Splendid Suns


After exploring the patriarchal system in both countries, Indiaand Afgan, it can be seen that there are some similarities and differences between the patriarchal system in Indiatold in Roy’a The God of Small Things and the patriarchal system in Afgan told in Hosseini’s A Thousand Splendid Suns. The similarities and differences are also found in its effects towardIndia and Afgan women’s life.

Among the similarities, it can be seen that the patriarchal system inIndiaand Afgan is influenced, even supported by the countries’ ideologies, especially its religion’s laws. As it is known, both countries are considered as religious countries, so, their culture is created based on their religious teaching.

The other similarity is that this patriarchal system in both countries has resulted the similar effects. The effects include the physical violence, the psychological violence, and economical violence. These effects have made the Indian and Afgan women live in hard condition.

While the difference is laid in the application of the patriarchal system. InIndia, this system is applied for almost all women of that country. It does not care the women’s strata or classes. All Indian women in all classes willingly or not should follow this system. But in Afgan, this system is applied in different ways by some ethnics.


AsIndiaand Afgan are known as religious countries, lot of their culture and social laws are created based on their major religions. The misinterpretation of some religious teaching then becomes the main support of the existence of patriarchal system. Patriarchal system is social laws related to cultural discourse about gender, which cause the men viewed as the first and women as the second. It means that women were put in the lower position comparing to the men.

The patriarchal system ofIndiaand Afgan has resulted some negative effects for women. Although it may be created by intention to honor the women, to take care the women, to any other reasons, but in fact, lot of women ofIndiaand Afgan suffered because of this system. They have faced some violence from their husbands, or other men in their society, including the physical, psychological, economical and sexual violence. From Roy’s and Hosseini’s novel, it can be seen that patriarchal system is such legal torturing of men toward the women that of course it is injustice for them.


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